Wednesday, July 18, 2018

World Hematology 2018

We extend a warm welcome to all the oncologists, haematologists, immunologists, pathologists, research scholars, industrial professionals and student delegates from biomedical and healthcare sectors to be a part of  our Conference. Here is our Invitation!! Do join us at our big event!!

Tuesday, July 17, 2018

Cooling Caps in Chemotherapy

As far as the Cancer treatment is concerned, the most widely known treatment be Chemotherapy. Even though we have many advancements in Cancer treatments, Chemotherapy be the ideal one in most of the cases. The major side effect that people face while undergoing Chemotherapy is hair loss. To minimize this, FDA has approved Cooling Caps that can be used during the treatment in order to reduce hair loss. So, let’s have a look at what Cooling caps are?
So, What are Cooling Caps?
Cooling Caps are devices that are designed to reduce hair loss in people who undergo Chemotherapy as a part of their Cancer treatment. FDA initially cleared the device, the DigniCap® Scalp Cooling System, for patients with breast cancer in 2015.
How does it work?
Scalp cooling has been in use in Europe for several decades where it is thought to prevent hair loss by reducing the blood flow to hair follicles. Cooling the scalp causes the blood vessels to constrict, which may limit the amount of chemotherapy drug that reaches the hair follicles.
Cold caps and scalp cooling systems are tightly fitting, strap-on, helmet-type hats filled with a gel coolant that’s chilled to between -15 to -40 degrees Fahrenheit. These caps are worn for 20 to 50 minutes before, during and after the treatment. Cold caps and scalp cooling systems are slightly different. Cold caps are similar to ice packs. Kept in a special freezer before they’re worn, cold caps thaw out during a chemotherapy infusion session and need to be replaced with a new cap about every 30 minutes. With scalp cooling systems, the cap is attached to a small refrigeration machine that circulates coolant, so the cap only has to be fitted once and doesn’t need to changed during chemotherapy. However, the usage and cost depends on the duration of treatment.
The DigniCap System approved by FDA uses a tightly fitted cap in which cold liquid circulates to cool the scalp before, during, and after chemotherapy. This cap, which is connected to a machine that regulates the cooling process, is covered by an outer cap, made of neoprene, that acts as an insulator.
People who use Cooling Caps are generally asked to follow the below provided:
  • no blow drying, hot rollers, or straightening irons
  • shampoo only every third day with cool water and a gentle shampoo
  • no coloring until 3 months after chemotherapy is done
  • gentle combing and brushing
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Monday, July 16, 2018

World Hematology 2018

We welcome all the oncologists, hematologists, immunologists, pathologists, research scholars, Biomedical Engineers, Biotechnologists, industrial professionals and student delegates from Medical, Paramedical and Technical Institutes to be a part of 10th World Hematology and Oncology Congress. World Hematology 2018 will provide an excellent opportunity for the budding scientists and young researchers through its special initiatives like Young Researcher Forum, Poster Presentation, B2B and Scientific Meetings.
To know more, Please do have a look at our Brochure, PS: https://hematology.cmesociety.com/conference-brochure

Thursday, July 12, 2018

Gamma T Cells and Cancer

Gammadelta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that express a unique T-cell receptor (TCR) composed of one γ-chain and one δ-chain. Gammadelta T cells are of low abundance in the body, are found in the gut mucosa, skin, lungs and uterus, and are involved in the initiation and propagation of immune responses. Differentially polarized γδT-cell subsets exhibit functionally diverse responses to tumors, thus potentially leading to antitumor or protumor responses. Generally, human γδT cells are divided into two major structural subsets according to their TCR δ chain usage: Vδ1 and Vδ2 T cells.
γδT cells display cytotoxicity against hematopoietic and solid tumors in an MHC-independent manner. Although their activation mechanisms differ, both Vδ2 and Vδ1 subsets exert potent antitumor effects. One common γδT-cell-mediated killing pattern involves tumor cell recognition via receptor–ligand interactions. TCR is strongly implicated in controlling Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell cytotoxicity via the recognition of phosphoantigens that are overexpressed in tumor cells and mediate tumor cell lysis. NKG2D binds to MICA/B and ULBPs and induces Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell cytotoxicity against hemopoietic and epithelial tumors. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are induced to produce IFN-γ and kill hepatocellular carcinoma cells via the interaction of DNAM-1 and nectin-like-5. γδT cells also exhibit strong cytotoxicity against myeloma cells via NKp44. Furthermore, CD56+ γδT cells are capable of killing squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, a process that is likely to be mediated by the enhanced expression of granzyme B and upregulated degranulation. Similarly to NK cells, γδT cells induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) effects, thus resulting in the lysis of tumor cells. According to Tokuyama H et al., CD16+ Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognize monoclonal antibody-coated lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and breast cancer cells via CD16 and exert ADCC-dependent cytotoxicity. γδT cells mediate ADCC against B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia via CD19 antibodies. In several other studies, γδT cells have also been shown to mediate ADCC effects against tumor cells via CD16 in the presence of therapeutic antitumor monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, γδT cells have antitumor roles by modulating other effector cells. Although γδT cells demonstrate potent antitumor capacity, paradoxically they also exert protumor effects by promoting noncytotoxic inflammation and regulatory functions that subvert cytotoxic antitumor immunity. Intratumoral γδT cell numbers are positively associated with advanced tumor stages and are inversely correlated with breast cancer prognosis.
Source: https://www.nature.com/subjects/gammadelta-t-cells | https://www.nature.com/articles/cmi201655

Wednesday, July 11, 2018

World Hematology 2018

We extend a warm welcome to all to join us at our big event, “10th World Hematology and Oncology Congress” to be held on October 22- 23, 2018 at Warsaw, Poland.
Our Speaker slots are open. Save the dates!! Hurry up!! Register soon to avail offers and group benefits!!
To know more, PS: https://hematology.cmesociety.com/ | https://worldhematology.wordpress.com/


Tuesday, July 10, 2018

A View on Stem Cells

Stem cells are the foundation for every organ and tissue in your body. There are many different types of stem cells that come from different places in the body or are formed at different times in our lives. These include embryonic stem cells that exist only at the earliest stages of development and various types of tissue-specific (or adult) stem cells that appear during fetal development and remain in our bodies throughout life. All stem cells can self-renew and differentiate. 
Types:
  • Embryonic stem cells
  • Tissue-specific stem cells
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC)
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells
Embryonic stem cells are obtained from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. They are pluripotent, meaning they can give rise to every cell type in the fully formed body, but not the placenta and umbilical cord. These cells are incredibly valuable because they provide a renewable resource for studying normal development and disease, and for testing drugs and other therapies.
Tissue-specific stem cells (also referred to as somatic or adult stem cells) are more specialized than embryonic stem cells. Typically, these stem cells can generate different cell types for the specific tissue or organ in which they live. Some tissues and organs within our body contain small caches of tissue-specific stem cells whose job it is to replace cells from that tissue that are lost in normal day-to-day living or in injury, such as those in our skin, blood, and the lining of our gut. Tissue-specific stem cells can be difficult to find in the human body, and they don’t seem to self-renew in culture as easily as embryonic stem cells do. 
MSC refer to cells isolated from stroma, the connective tissue that surrounds other tissues and organs. Cells by this name are more accurately called “stromal cells” by many scientists. The first MSCs were discovered in the bone marrow and were shown to be capable of making bone, cartilage and fat cells. Since then, they have been grown from other tissues, such as fat and cord blood. Various MSCs are thought to have stem cell, and even immunomodulatory, properties and are being tested as treatments for a great many disorders, but there is little evidence to date that they are beneficial. Scientists do not fully understand whether these cells are actually stem cells or what types of cells they are capable of generating. They do agree that not all MSCs are the same, and that their characteristics depend on where in the body they come from and how they are isolated and grown.
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are cells that have been engineered in the lab by converting tissue-specific cells, such as skin cells, into cells that behave like embryonic stem cells. IPS cells are critical tools to help scientists learn more about normal development and disease onset and progression, and they are also useful for developing and testing new drugs and therapies. While iPS cells share many of the same characteristics of embryonic stem cells, including the ability to give rise to all the cell types in the body, they aren’t exactly the same.
Source: http://www.closerlookatstemcells.org/learn-about-stem-cells/types-of-stem-cells

Monday, July 9, 2018

Tumor Treating Field

Tumor-treating Fields (TTFields) are low intensity, intermediate frequency, alternating electric fields delivered through noninvasive transducer arrays placed locoregionally around the anatomic region of the tumor. TTFields selectively disrupt cell division, and preclinical research has demonstrated the antimitotic effects of TTFields in different tumor types. TTFields’ effects on dividing cells result from the multitude of charged macromolecules and organelles responsible for key processes in the mitotic process. Structural change or dislocation of those cellular components may alter their physiologic function, and ultimately disrupt normal mitosis. The effects of TTFields on various cellular processes can be explained by two fundamental physical principles: dipole alignment and dielectrophoresis. TTFields are nonuniformly distributed within the treated region based on multiple parameters, which include the geometry of the treated organ, the distance between transducer arrays applied to the patient’s skin, and the tissue’s dielectric properties. The fields do not attenuate in correlation to the distance from the array, and may therefore be used for the treatment of deeply located tumors. As electric fields do not have a half-life time, TTFields are continuously delivered during the course of treatment.
TTFields are delivered via noninvasive transducer arrays attached to the skin of patients. The field-generator may be connected to a portable battery and is intended for continuous use. No high-grade systemic toxicity has been related to TTFields, as anticipated by the mechanism of action and the regional nature of the application. The most common adverse event related to TTFields is mild-to-moderate dermatitis (of either contact or allergic etiology) at the site of the transducer array placement.